An assortment of 15 new INDCs was published over the weekend and on Monday, ahead of an informal Oct. 1 deadline for the national pledges that will set the stage for December’s UN climate summit in Paris. The plans included a number from South America, Africa and a collection of small island nations at risk from rising sea levels. Here’s a run-down of what was pledged:
Brazil – The country officially published its INDC on Monday, a day after President Dilma Rousseff announced Brazil’s targets at the UN General Assembly in New York. It has pledged to unconditionally cut its GHGs by 37% under 2005 levels by 2025, which is one of the most ambitious goals in percentage terms made so far. It also makes Brazil one of the few developing nations to announce an absolute emission goal, in contrast to other countries that have offered to limit growth from unchecked levels. It would still allow Brazil’s emissions to rise around 8% from 2012 levels.
Brazil’s INDC also included a “subsequent indicative contribution” to cut emissions by 43% on 2005 levels by 2030, which it said would require emissions to reach 1.2 billion tonnes. The economy-wide INDC target deepens Brazil’s 2020 voluntary GHG pledge of 36.1-38.9% below BAU levels, which translated to a 15-18% cut on 2005 emissions.
The submission did not mention whether Brazil intends to launch a domestic carbon market to help drive down emissions, but emphasised that the further transfer abroad of emission reduction units generated in the country would require the government’s consent and this would not happen unless endorsed under the UNFCCC and its related instruments. “Brazil will not recognise the use by other Parties of any units resulting from mitigation outcomes achieved in the Brazilian territory that have been acquired through any mechanism, instrument or arrangement established outside the Convention, its Kyoto Protocol or its Paris agreement,” it added.
Peru – The country, hosts of last year’s UN summit, offered an unconditional cut below BAU levels of 20% by 2030, and a further 10% subject to the availability of international financing and the existence of “favourable conditions”. Peru said it was open to tapping MBMs, but as a seller rather than a buyer, and providing it was not an obstacle towards complying with its national commitment. The upper target was slightly weaker than the goal flagged during a government consultation held over the summer.
Guyana – The South American nation targeted only CO2 emissions from the forestry and energy for mitigation. It said that without support it could carry out limited forestry management and clean energy promotion activities, but with support it could save 52 million tonnes of CO2e by 2025 through increasing its share of renewables to 20% of total energy usage. That would include developing a 300 MW hydroelectric plant, partnering with neighbouring Brazil, and REDD+ initiatives. “With the current state of carbon markets, Guyana does not foresee using this source at this time, but the door is open to the use of carbon markets in the future, subject to robust MRV systems to ensure environmental integrity,” it added.
Kazakhstan – It pledged to unconditionally cut its GHGs by 15% below 1990 levels by 2030, offering to raise that to 25% with international investments, access to a low-carbon technology transfer mechanism, and “green climate” funds. The country said it supported the inclusion of market based mechanisms (MBMs) in the Paris agreement, adding that it would “consider adequately discounting international units for compliance to ensure a contribution to net global emissions reductions”. Kazakhstan, along with South Korea, is one of the few Asian countries to have a national emissions trading scheme.
Myanmar – The Asian LDC did not submit a formal emissions reduction target, but rather pledged to increase forested areas, raise the share of hydroelectric power in its generation mix, expand the use of renewable energy, improve energy efficiency and distribute more clean cookstoves. It added that it would need to rely on international assistance to accomplish these goals.
Cameroon – The country offered to cut its BAU emissions by 32% by 2035 provided it receives financing, capacity building and technology transfer from the international community. It said the plan would cover energy, agriculture, forest and waste sectors, exempting industry and transport. Cameroon added that it would support the inclusion of MBMs in an international agreement.
Gambia – The African nation said, excluding LULUCF, it will reduce its emission by “about” 44.4% below 2010 levels by 2025, and 45.4% by 2030. The strategy featured 12 mitigation activities, two of which were unconditional: afforestation and renewable energy. The rest, including solar water heating, methane capture at landfills, and distributing clean cookstoves, were predicated on the country receiving either financial support, technology transfer, or both. The Gambia also said that it has “so far not benefited from the international market mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol,” adding that while it does not plan to achieve any of its commitment by buying certificates from any potential new MBMs, it would be a host country to projects under such a scheme. The Gambia said it also supports the continuation of the CDM under a new climate pact.
Senegal – It offered to unconditionally cut, below BAU levels, by 3% in 2020, 4% in 2025 and 5% in 2030, estimating it costing $1.8 billion. On a conditional basis, it offered to up those targets to 7%, 15% and 21% with international funding of $5 billion. The country did not mention MBMs.
Burkina Faso – The country submitted a sizeable 56-page INDC that pledged to unconditionally cut GHGs from its agriculture and energy sectors by a total 6.6% below BAU levels by 2030. It offered to deepen that goal, including a 0.1% cut in waste emissions, to 18.2% with foreign aid of $756 million. “A third adaptation scenario, which aims to, among others things, restore and develop 5,055,000 hectares of degraded land in 2030, corresponding to 55% of the current total area of degraded land in the country to feed nearly 6 million more people by 2030.” It said these adaptation projects would cost $5.8 billion and reduce emissions by a further 36.95%, bringing the country’s overall target to 55.15% below BAU by 2030.
Chad – The African nation pledged an unconditional reduction of 18.2% below BAU levels by 2030, but offered to raise that to 71% for international financial assistance amounting to $17.8 billion. Chad said it has no plans to use to international carbon markets to offset its own emissions, but wants to “encourage investment in mitigation projects on its own soil under the CDM and REDD+ programmes”.
Central African Republic – It said it would cut its emissions to 5% below BAU levels by 2030 and 25% below BAU by 2050. The plan asked for international support amounting to $2.25 billion for mitigation efforts, though the difference in unconditional and conditional cuts was only expressed in tonnes of CO2e below BAU, not percentage (4mt vs 5.5mt in 2030 and 10.4mt vs 47.3mt in 2050). It said it supports international market mechanisms such as the CDM.
Maldives – The archipelago of nearly 1,200 islands pledged to unconditionally cut by 10% below BAU by 2030, offering to scale that up to 24% through sustainable development supported and enabled by the availability of financial resources, technology transfer and capacity building. The submission did not mention MBMs.
Barbados – The Caribbean nation pledged to cut economy-wide GHGs by 44% below BAU by 2030, which it said is equivalent to 23% below 2008 levels. As an interim target, it also offered to cut by 37% below BAU by 2025, equal to 21% below 2008. It added that it intends to use MBMs including the CDM and NAMAs.
Mauritius – The small African island nation pledged to keep its 2030 emissions 30% below its estimated BAU levels of 7 million tonnes in 2030 on the condition that it receives over $1.5 billion in support to fund projects.
Kiribati – The Pacific island pledged to reduce emissions to 13.7% below BAU levels by 2025 and 12.8% by 2030. With appropriate international assistance, the nation could cut its emissions 61.6% in 2030, it said, listing ten project activities that would require a total $6.9 million in support. Kiribati will consider market-based mechanisms to support the establishment and operation of a National Climate Change Trust Fund.