A steady stream of INDCs flowed in on Thursday, the soft deadline for nations to submit their post-2020 climate pledges to the UN.
Pledges from the biggest emitters indicate the world is on course to achieve a 2.7C temperature rise, researchers Climate Action Tracker said in a report. That is lower than the 3.1C they forecasted last December but still some distance from a global goal of keeping temperature increases to 2C.
Larger emitters Argentina, Thailand and the Philippines laid out their plans, along with India (see separate story here).
Below are brief summaries of the INDCs submitted on Thursday.
Argentina – Made an unconditional pledge to keep 2030 emissions 15% below BAU levels, which would mean emitting 535 million tonnes of CO2e in 2030, a 25% increase on current levels. With international support, Argentina would stay at 30% below BAU in 2030, slightly over current levels. Made no mention of MBMs.
Belize – Made no numerical pledge, but listed a number of projects that would cut carbon dioxide emissions from energy and LULUCF that it could carry out with international support. Willing to explore market-based mechanisms.
Botswana – It pledged a 15% cut on 2010 levels by 2030 in its energy, waste and agriculture sectors. Added that it will use market-based mechanisms (MBMs).
Ecuador – Will reduce energy sector emissions to 25% below BAU by 2025, and could raise target to 37.5-45.8% with international support. Also plans to increase efforts to halt deforestation. Made no mention of MBMs.
Guinea – The west African nation pledged to cut GHG emissions to 14% below 1994 levels by 2030 given it receives over $6.5 billion in funding to help implement a number of projects, such as boosting renewables and finding alternatives to wood and charcoal. Guinea supports an international carbon market, but pointed out it has yet to host a project under the CDM and said capacity-building was required.
Honduras – Pledged to keep 2030 emissions at 15% below BAU on the condition of international funding. In addition it would increase forest coverage by 1 million hectares through afforestation/reforestation projects. INDC did not mention MBMs.
Laos – Did not set an overall target, but listed a number of projects it would carry out on the condition it received international support, including increasing forest coverage, boosting renewables and implementing transport-focused NAMAs. The projects would cut around 1.8 million tonnes of CO2e annually. No mention of MBMs.
Paraguay – Pledged to cut GHG emissions 10% below 2030 BAU, and could raise this to 20% with funding and technology transfer. No mention of market-based mechanisms.
Philippines – Pledged to reduce GHG emissions 70% from BAU by 2030 on the condition of international support and technology transfer. Cuts would be made across the economy. The INDC did not mention market mechanisms.
Samoa – The Pacific island state pledged to generate all of its electricity from renewable sources by 2025. The electricity sector currently accounts for 13% of its total GHG emissions. Any economy-wide pledge would depend on international financial assistance, it said, but did not specify further. “Samoa currently uses no market mechanisms but is willing to pursue the potential of markets where possible,” it said.
Sierra Leone – Made no numerical pledge, but said it would keep its emissions “relatively low” by 2035 on condition it received support amounting to $900 million. Supports an international market-based mechanism.
Thailand – The South East Asian nation pledged to cut emissions to 20% below its expected 2030 BAU level of 555 mtCO2e. It said it would increase the target to 25% with international support. “Thailand recognizes the important role of market-based mechanisms to enhance the cost effectiveness of mitigation actions, and therefore will continue to explore the potentials of bilateral, regional and international market mechanisms,” it said.
Click here for our INDC Tracker summarising every country’s submission and its main features, with a focus on mitigation and use of markets.