Nations continue to submit their climate pledges to the UN on Wednesday ahead of the Oct. 1 deadline. Here is a summary of the roughly 25 released plans, which include Israel and Ukraine.
Bhutan – Pledged to remain carbon neutral whereby GHG emissions will not exceed sequestration by its forests. It also said it intends to pursue more hydro power with support from the CDM or other MBMs.
Burundi – Said it will reduce 2030 emissions to 3% below BAU, but could raise this to 20% with international support. Most reductions would take place in agriculture and forestry. Burundi’s INDC made no mention of market mechanisms.
Cambodia – The southeast Asian nation offered to cut its GHGs by 27% below 2010 levels by 2030, adding that it expects to receive help finance through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms including MBMs.
Costa Rica – Pledged an absolute cut in emissions of 24.7% below 2012 levels by 2030. “Costa Rica reserves its sovereign right to use international compensation units to accomplish its goals within the National Contribution or, as well, within its Domestic Compensation Market,” the INDC said.
Guatemala – The Central American nation pledged to cut GHG emissions 11.2% below BAU by 2030, and could up the target to 22.6% with international funding. The INDC said the government is drawing up emission reduction plans across the economy to meet the target, including implementing REDD. Guatemala did not say whether or not it would use a carbon market.
Guinea-Bissau – Says based on 2006 data it is an absolute sink for GHGs and as such did not put forward a mitigation target. It will however, implement new policies to combat deforestation in the country, and participate in an international carbon market.
Haiti – The Caribbean LDC made an unconditional pledge to cut GHG emissions across the economy to 5% below BAU in 2030, with the potential to raise the target to 26% if it receives funding of up to $8.8 billion. Haiti plans to access carbon market finance as part of its strategy to meet the target.
Israel – Pledged to cut its GHG emissions to 7.7 tCO2e per capita by 2030, down 26% from 2005 levels, with an interim target of 8.8 tonnes by 2025. In absolute terms, Israel said the goal would translate to 1.7% below 2010 levels and 22.6% below BAU levels in 2030. The target would be met by boosting energy efficiency, increasing the share of renewables and shifting commuters over to public transport. The ambition outlined in the plan was lower than the 25% cut in emissions from 2005 levels reported by Israeli media earlier this month. The plan made no mention of carbon markets.
Lebanon – Said will limit GHG emissions to 15% below BAU by 2030 – 30% if it receives international funding. Most of the cuts would come from increased use of renewables and improved energy efficiency. Lebanon said the international carbon market is not yet sufficiently developed for it to make a decision on whether to use, but it did not exclude the possibility of participating.
Lesotho – An unconditional target of a 10% cut below 2030 BAU, deepening to 35% with international support. Lesotho remains open to the possibility of using an international market mechanism and considers the establishment of one vital to reduce total costs of meeting the global 2C goal. Did not mention MBMs.
Liberia – Pledged a 15% cut under 2030 BAU emissions of 5.3 million tonnes of CO2e with four actions of a 30% renewable in total generation, distributing clean cookstoves, 5% use of biofuels in transport fuel, installing a landfill gas capture plant.
Malawi – Pledged to cut its per capita emissions from 1.4 tonnes/CO2e in 2010 to 0.7-0.8 tonnes in 2030. No mention of MBMs.
Mozambique – It gave no baseline but said it could cut 76.5 million tonnes of CO2e over 2020-2030. It said it was willing to participate in market mechanisms to help access clean technologies.
Papua New Guinea – The heavily forested country gave several sector aims including a goal to be carbon free in the electricity sector by 2030. Its 2014 emissions of 5 million tonnes of CO2e are set to rise to 18 million in 2030 under BAU. “Of the country’s approximately 7 million people, over 90% are employed in the informal sector and live an almost entirely sustainable fossil fuel-free existence,” it said.
Rwanda – It said it was currently estimating its GHG emission levels. Added that it intends to sell carbon credits, and will also participate in MBMs including the CDM, NAMAs and REDD+.
San Marino – The tiny European country pledged a 20% cut below 2005 levels by 2030, aiming for domestic measures.
Sao Tome and Principe – It made no unconditional pledge, but said it would cut GHG emissions 24% below 2005 levels by 2030 with appropriate funding. The island nation will remain a net carbon sink in 2030. Its INDC said: “Sao Tome and Principe supports the use of market mechanisms including the results of mitigation pre-2020, such as the use of Emission Reduction Certificates (ERCs) generated by CDM projects and programs.”
Solomon Islands – They pledged to cut emissions to 12% below BAU in 2025 and 30% in 2030, but could up the target to 27% and 45% respectively with funding. By mid-century, GHG emissions could be cut by over 50% with appropriate support. Will consider using market mechanisms.
Suriname – Pledged no numerical goals but said it would work to protect mangrove forests and deploying small-scale renewable energy. No mention of markets.
Tajikistan – An unconditional target not to exceed 80-90% of 1990 emissions of 25.5 million tonnes of CO2e by 2030, or to not exceed 65-75% with international funding and technology transfer. Did not refer to use of MBMs.
Togo – It offered unconditional cuts of 11.14% below BAU by 2030, and conditional cuts of 31.14% based on aid including $3.54 million. The country added: “In accordance with the Declaration of African Ministers in Marrakesh in April 2015, (we) want to encourage investment in mitigation projects on (our) own soil including through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and REDD+ program.”
Turkmenistan – With sufficient support, Turkmenistan could keep 2030 emissions at 2015 levels or even begin reducing them, despite BAU estimates suggesting GHGs would double between 2012 and 2030. Made no mention of markets.
Ukraine – The Eastern European country pledged to keep 2030 emissions at 40% below 1990 levels, the weakest of four options that were circulated among policy-makers earlier this month. “Ukraine will participate actively in the development of existing international market mechanisms and implementation of new ones,” the INDC said, but stressed that the declared GHG emissions level does not account for the participation of Ukraine in international market mechanisms.
Zimbabwe – The southern African nation made a conditional pledge to reduce 2030 GHG emissions to 33% below BAU, given it receives appropriate finance, including $7.25 billion for core projects that would cut emissions 17.3 million tonnes of CO2e per year. “Zimbabwe also intends to leverage on its resources including carbon credits or sell of emission reductions units through international and regional carbon markets and/or carbon pricing mechanisms to mobilise more resources for managing climate change”, it said.